Life after giving birth to a child can be extremely difficult and challenging. Women may experience various changes in the physical and emotional aspects of their bodies and mind. Many women experience discharge of blood up to eight weeks post the delivery of the child. Other symptoms after childbirth can be swelling in breaststroke, pain in the uterus, constant discharge, and abnormal urinal control.
Here’s a list of changes women experience post-pregnancy.
Post-pregnancy, women may feel the opening, loosening, and swollen vagina. Type of child delivery, vaginal size, weight and size of the fetus, genetic factors, etc are some of the factors that determine vaginal changes. After the delivery of the child, the vagina may feel drier than before as levels of estrogen decrease. Therefore, for problems of dryness, pharmaceutical lubricants are advised to be applied in intimate areas. Within a period of six to eight weeks, women may feel pain or soreness in the vagina. Keeping the perineal area clean can help in relieving vaginal pain. Furthermore, women may also feel vaginal pain during sexual intercourse post-pregnancy.
Urinary Incontinence post-pregnancy
Involuntary loss of urine is known as uterine incontinence. After the delivery of a child, women experience changes in the urethra, uterus, and urinary bladder. Pregnancy causes damage to the nerves of the uterine bladder and the weakening of the urinary muscles. As the urinary bladder is overactive post pregnancy, women tend to experience uterine incontinence. These changes occur due to pressure on the bladder sphincter that controls the flow of urine. Studies have shown that women undergoing c-sections face more difficulty managing this than those experiencing normal delivery. Medications and pelvic exercises can help in managing abnormal urine flow.
It refers to swelling of veins inside the rectum and anus that may lead to swelling, itching, and bleeding spring bowel movements. The appearance of blood clots in feces is known as a thrombosed hemorrhoid. Furthermore, drinking plenty of water, taking warm baths, using ice packs to reduce the swelling, and consuming dietary fiber can help in getting rid of this post-pregnancy.
Change in the Shoe size
According to the American College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (ACOG), the shoe size of women changes posts pregnancy. This is due to the gain in 30 to 35 lbs weight that makes the foot’s arch flat in women. Change in shoe size post-pregnancy is because of hormonal changes. At the time of childbirth, a hormone called relaxin is produced by the placenta, corpus luteum, and uterus. Relaxin activates collagenase that relaxes the ligaments and bones in the pelvis and widens the cervix to facilitate easy expulsion of the baby through the birth canal. This hormone affects the ligaments of feet making the feet spread out permanently. Hence, changing the shoe size forever.
Dental Problems Post Pregnancy
Women may experience dental problems post-pregnancy as the levels of calcium decrease after the delivery of a child. Women may experience acid erosion of teeth due to morning sickness. Elevated hormone levels in women may lead to gum diseases. After the delivery of a baby, mothers consume more sugar than earlier, which may damage the oral cavity. Limiting the intake of sugary snacks and food items can help in decreasing the chances of tooth decay. It is also essential for new mothers to consume a diet rich in calcium post-pregnancy and breastfeeding.
Sagging Breasts After Childbirth
Cooper’s ligaments in women break support and lift the breasts. Dropping or deflation of the breast is medically known as breast ptosis. After pregnancy, the breaststroke of women may appear droopy and deflated due to loss of skin and elasticity. Therefore, body mass index (BMI), changes in body weight, age, smoking, genetic factor, and gravity are some of the factors that influence sagging breasts.
Appearance Of Stretch Marks Post Pregnancy
As the body grows, elastic fibers underneath the skin surface break and result in the appearance of stretch marks. The appearance of stretch marks on the womb, thighs, buttocks, breaks, and upper arms very common post-pregnancy in women. Furthermore, cosmetic procedures, micro-needling, and laser therapy are some of the clinical methods to remove stretch marks.
Bringing a life into the world can be a stunning yet challenging task. Women experience a lot of changes after the delivery of a child. Such as a change in shoe size, changes in body weight, dental issues, vaginal changes, and breast-related changes. Along with stretch marks on the womb, thighs, arms, and hair growth. Drinking plenty of water, taking warm baths, and consuming dietary fiber are hence some of the measures that may help in reducing the pain and irritation post-childbirth.
There can be many complications involving the mother’s health as well as the child’s health during pregnancy. Various medicines are allowed during pregnancy such as antibiotics and analgesics.
Health Risks During Pregnancy
Often pregnant women have a high blood sugar condition which is known as gestational diabetes mellitus. There is an overall increase in hormones such as estrogen, human placental lactogen (HPLC), and human placental growth hormone during pregnancy. The disease divides into class A1 and class A2 gestational diabetes. These hormones are resistant to insulin that leads to rising blood glucose levels in pregnant women. Excessive fatigue, abnormal urination urges, vision impairment, extreme hunger, and thirst are some of the symptoms of this.
Consuming a balanced diet can be a great way to control blood glucose levels. Items such as whole grains, milk, starchy vegetables, poultry, tofu, milk, peas, low-sugar fruits, etc should be taken in sufficient amounts. Pregnant women who have this should avoid the intake of alcohol, sweet beverages, and sugar-coated food items.
Anemia during pregnancy
Anemia refers to deficiencies of iron, vitamin B-12, and folate that arise due to inadequate oxygen supply in the body of pregnant women. The condition arises from the inability of the body to produce red blood cells, which hampers the body’s ability to supply oxygen. The signs and symptoms that associate anemia are tiredness, shortness of breath, numbness, irregular heartbeat, irritability, and trouble while concentrating. The condition can be detectable by a complete blood count (CBC) test.
Consuming an iron-rich and vitamin-c rich diet can be helpful in the prevention of anemia. Pregnant women should consume orange juice, lemon juice, green leafy vegetables, lentils, yoghurt, cheese, and beans to fight iron deficiency.
Hyperemesis gravidarum is a condition that pregnant women face. Wherein they have nausea and severe vomiting. There is loss of appetite, dehydration, and excessive weight loss. Women with this feel light-headed and lose 5 to 10 per cent body weight. Women who are overweight, expecting more than one child, and have a family history of this are at a higher risk of developing this disorder.
It is advisable to take vitamin B6 supplements and ginger for a cure at its initial stage. Hydration is the key to prevent this. In critical cases, doctors prescribe anti-nausea drugs for their prevention.
The placenta is the cushion-like tissue that provides essential nutrients, water, and oxygen to the developing embryo. It also helps in the removal of the waste that the fetus generates. Placenta praevia is a condition in which the tissue- placenta covers and blocks the cervix leading to severe bleeding during delivery. Vaginal bleeding without pain is the main symptom of this. Sexual denial and utmost bed rest are advisable in such cases.
Doctors advise women to avoid physical activities such as jumping, squatting, using tampons, or engaging in intercourse. If the condition does not improve, C-section for the delivery is necessary.
Placental abruption is another health problem that associates with pregnant mothers. In this disorder, the woman experiences bleeding between the placenta and uterus walls. It occurs due to the detachment of the placenta from the womb before the delivery of the child. Pregnant women who have this may experience abdominal pain, uterine cramping, vaginal bleeding, premature labor, and frequent contractions.
It requires a lot of care to treat placental abruption. It is strictly advised to take complete rest for pregnant women facing placental abruption. Hence, a C-section is done to deliver the baby.
After the delivery of the child, women face a lot of physical, emotional, and behavioral changes. If the emotions are negative, women often develop postnatal depression. Insomnia, loss of appetite, difficulty in managing the baby, loss of pleasure in activities, panic attacks, lack of concentration and abnormal weight changes. Also, restlessness and intensive irritation are some of the signs and symptoms of this.
Taking care of the mother’s mental health post-pregnancy is essential. Following a healthy diet, resting well, exercising, and seeking help can prove excellent to treat postnatal depression. In severe cases, a psychiatrist recommends support groups, cognitive behavioral therapy, hormonal therapy, and antidepressants.
Infections, problems with fetuses, and preterm labor are other types of health problems faced during pregnancy. Healthy diets, resting well, spending time with the baby, and taking extreme care are some of the ways to manage pregnancy-related issues. Pregnant women must consume food items rich in carbohydrates, proteins, essential amino acids, and good cholesterol. Therefore, seeking medical advice and help in critical cases is extremely important to ensure the proper health of the mother and the child.
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), heart diseases are one of the prime causes of death. Heart diseases can arise by infection due to viruses, abnormal heart rhythm, irregular heartbeats, and weakening of the cardiac muscles. So, here is a list of several heart diseases and the common symptoms.
A healthy heartbeat is determined by counting the number of heartbeats in one minute. The number of heartbeats can increase if a person is involved in athletic activity. Cardiac arrhythmia is a condition wherein a person experiences an irregular heartbeat. The person suffering from this condition can experience bradycardia (heartbeats above 100 bpm), tachycardia (heartbeats below 60 bpm), and fibrillation. So, severe forms of arrhythmia are cardiac stroke and heart failure. The condition arises due to the problems in the transportation of action potentials arising from cardiac cells. Hence, excessive alcoholism, smoking, hyperthyroidism, certain herbal supplements, and coffee consumption make the person prone to cardiac arrhythmia.
Signs and symptoms
The common signs and symptoms associated with cardiac arrhythmia include heart palpitations, changes in blood pressure, and difficulty in breathing. Fainting, mental confusion, acute chest pain, and lightheadedness too. An electrical device, known as an electrocardiogram measure the heartbeat.
Coronary Artery Disease (CAD)
There are four coronary arteries namely the right coronary artery, left coronary artery, left circumflex artery, and left anterior descending artery present on the heart. The primary function of these arteries is to supply adequate oxygen and blood to the heart. Vascular heart injury wherein the flow of blood through the arteries is impaired is referred to as coronary artery disease. The risk factors that are the potential causes of CAD are high blood pressure, obesity, and obstructive sleep apnea. High blood cholesterol, excessive alcohol intake, sedentary lifestyle, and hyperglycemia as well. Therefore, this heart disease can be identifiable by electrocardiogram, CT scan, echocardiogram, and cardiac catheterization.
Signs and symptoms
Angina (pain in the chest), feelings of heaviness in the heart, burning sensations, squeezing of the chest, unexplained vomiting, nausea, and development of arrhythmia. Excessive sweating, shortness of breath, and pain in the arms, back, and shoulders are also some of the common symptoms of coronary artery disease.
Another commonly detected heart condition is atherosclerosis. In this disease, the arteries narrow down due to the deposition of plaque. Here, plaque refers to the accumulation of calcium, fat, and cholesterol in the arteries. These depositions lead to a shortage of adequate blood and oxygen to the heart and tissues. The causes of atherosclerosis include high cholesterol, consumption of unhealthy diet, lack of physical activity, old age, high blood pressure, smoking, and diabetes. Atherosclerosis is detectable by blood tests to check the cholesterol levels of an individual, electrocardiogram, cardiac angiography, doppler ultrasound, and ankle-brachial index.
Signs and symptoms
The common signs and symptoms are a pain in the chest, weakening of muscles of limbs, shortness of breath and abdominal pain. Along with prolonging wound healing, perspiration, numbness of limbs, trouble in speaking, vision, confusion, and severe headaches.
Congenital Heart Diseases
Abnormalities in the heart present since birth in an individual are termed congenital heart diseases. There can be defects in heart valves that may hamper the flow of blood or can lead to the leaking of blood in congenital heart disease. The heart walls and blood vessels-arteries and veins affect by this disorder. Therefore, diagnosis for which is through MRI scan, CT scan, and echocardiogram.
Signs and symptoms
Since, the common signs and symptoms associating with congenital heart disease are changing of colour of skin, fingers and toes to bluish-black. Hence, reduction in body weight, difficulty in feeding the baby, shortness of breath, abnormal heart rhythm, fatigue, and acute chest pain also.
Treating Heart Diseases
Sedentary lifestyles, inactivity, and obesity majorly cause heart diseases. To some extent, individuals can keep their hearts healthy with the following methods.
- Regular exercise and a healthy balanced diet can be excellent ways to prevent heart diseases. The diet should be rich in fruits, vegetables, low in sodium and cholesterol, and minerals. Reducing the consumption of alcohol and smoking can help in lowering the risk of heart diseases.
- Medications such as antibiotics are authorized to patients with the complexity of heart disease. In severe cases, medical surgery is necessary to cure the patient. For instance, treatment for chronic atherosclerosis is by inserting a stent in the arteries to enhance blood flow.
120 systolic and 80 diastolic is the healthy blood pressure range that can be maintained through diet. Also, by reducing intake of alcohol. Stress may sometimes lead to heart disease and hence requires control. An individual must have healthy blood pressure, cholesterol levels, and maintain a balanced diet. He/she then is at lower exposure to heart diseases. Therefore, some of the common symptoms in heart diseases are a pain in the chest, weakening of muscles of limbs, abdominal pain, reduction in body weight, fainting, mental confusion, etc.
Sexual dysfunction in men is the struggles they face during intercourse. This relates to the health of an individual, stress levels, concerns about relationships, and other issues.
Sexual problems in men
Some of the sexual problems faced by men during coitus include irrelevant orgasms that are either too slow or too rapid, unable to have orgasms, absence of sexual desire, and inability to get an erection. Sexual problems can also include deformities in the penis and ejection of semen. Desire in coitus and sexual performance majorly relates to the age of the individuals. Over the years, men may need more foreplay and stimulation to keep an erection or it may take longer than usual to get an orgasm. Medical conditions of men such as heart diseases, diabetes, obesity, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, and hormonal imbalances can also affect the sexual drives of males.
Unhealthy habits such as smoking and alcoholism, or mental health issues such as stress and depression can also affect the sexual drives of males. Studies have shown that anxiety related to sexual performance, fear of pregnancy, and traumatic past sexual experiences can create mental stress in men. These factors can also reduce male intimacy. The presence of dry orgasms is a common symptom of major sexual problems in men. Furthermore, dry orgasms can also occur due to prostatectomy (removal of the prostate gland in men), cystectomy (surgical removal of the bladder), and radiation therapy in pelvic areas.
It is a male-centred non-cancerous condition that causes painful erections in males. In this sexual dysfunction, fibrous scar tissues develop on the penis that causes pain in men. Peyronie’s disease can be one of the major factors of the erectile dysfunction which can make it extremely difficult for men to maintain or get an erection.
Sexual problems in men can happen due to the demand for the penis during intercourse or during athletic activity. As the human body can heal every injured body part, while trying to heal the disrupted penis, it forms scar tissues. If the scar tissues get arranged in a disorganized manner, it will lead to the development of Peyronie’s syndrome. Due to the formation of disorganized scar tissues, elastic tissues called tunica albuginea find it difficult to stretch during an erection. Generally, heredity, connective tissue disorders, and old age are the causative factors of Peyronie’s disease.
Symptoms of Peyronie’s disease
The most common symptom of Peyronie’s disease includes the presence of scar tissues on the penis called plague. These scars can be present as flat lumps or hard tissue mass under the skin of the penis. Another symptom to identify Peyronie’s disorder is bending of the penis upward or downward in a curved manner. Maintaining or getting erections while suffering from Peyronie’s syndrome can be extremely difficult. In some cases, penile pain and shortening of the penis are also seen in individuals suffering from Peyronie’s disease. Individuals suffering from this sexual disorder may find their penis getting narrowed or may observe indentations around it. The shortening of curvature and penis is mainly associated with Peyronie’s disease.
It is a sexual problem where semen from the penis of a man enters the bladder instead of out of the penis. The condition is not harmful but turns unfavourable to men wanting to conceive a child. Taking a closer look at the anatomy of the male genital, a thin tube known as vas deferens associates with the transportation of sperms to the prostate gland. Mixing the sperm with seminal fluids to make semen is the major role of the prostate gland. There are several muscles to govern the release of semen from the bladder. The bladder neck does not tighten properly in case of Retrograde Ejaculation.
Causes and symptoms of Retrograde Ejaculation
This sexual disorder can arise from the side effects of medications used to treat blood pressure, depression, and prostate enlargement. Retrograde ejaculation can also be caused due to nerve damage occurring in diabetes, Parkinson’s disease, and spinal cord injuries. Generally, males having diabetes, multiple sclerosis, spinal cord injury, or bladder surgery are at a higher risk of developing Retrograde Ejaculation.
Common symptoms for the identification of this sexual disorder include the presence of cloudy urine after orgasms and male infertility. The occurrence of dry orgasms (where there is no semen is discharge while ejaculating) is another symptom of Retrograde Ejaculation.
Sexual dysfunction in men refers to the struggles faced by men during coitus. To manage the overall sexual health in men, consulting doctors is a very thoughtful measure. For solving erectile problems, many individuals prefer medications such as Viagra, Cialis, or Levitra. For treating hormonal imbalances, testosterone replacement therapies have gained a lot of attention. Advanced methods such as wearing penile traction therapy and vacuum erection devices also allow men to correct penile deformities.
The development of cancerous cells inside the colon of the large intestine is colorectal cancer or colon cancer.
Structures and roles of large intestine parts
Large intestines of the human body primarily deal with the absorption of water, minerals, and salts and exclude non-useful products. The large intestine has the cecum, ascending colon, descending colon, transverse colon, sigmoid colon, and rectum that help in the absorption of minerals and excretion of waste substances. The cecum is a small mucous membranous organ that absorbs water, salts, and minerals by mixing the content received from the small intestine with mucus. The colon is a small organ of the large intestine that converts food and digestive juices into the stool. It also reabsorbs electrolytes. The rectum is a straight chamber of the large intestine that stores the fecal matter and helps in its excretion.
What Is Colorectal Cancer?
The development of cancerous cells inside the colon of the large intestine is colorectal cancer or colon cancer. The presence of clumps of cells called polyps inside the colon leads to the development of cancer of the colon. This can be treated through surgery, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, radiation therapy, and medications. Colorectal cancer diagnoses are by imaging of colon samples during colonoscopy or sigmoidoscopy. Colostomy can help to remove small polyps. For large tumors, a biopsy is necessary. Streptococcus gallolyticus and Streptococcus equinus are the two bacterias that potentially cause colon cancer.
Causes of Colorectal Cancer
Multiple factors contribute to the development of benign tumors in the colon. Research studies show that the age of the patient determines the development of colorectal cancer in particular. People with an age of more than 50 years are at an elevated risk of developing colon cancer.
Inflammation in intestines
The presence of inflammatory intestinal conditions developed due to Crohn’s disease and Ulcerative colitis can also lead to colon cancer.
History of polyps
A person who already suffered from non-cancerous colon polyps is at a greater risk of developing colorectal cancer in the future. If any radiation therapy had been used to treat previous cancer, the person is likely to develop polyps inside the colon.
Studies have shown that people who have a sedentary lifestyle, who are inactive most of the time, and who do not get any regular physical exercise develop colorectal cancer at an elevated rate. Obesity also contributes to the increased risk of colorectal cancer.
They are at a higher risk of developing polyps (clumps of cells) inside the colon due to insulin resistance.
People with a non-nutritious diet can develop colon cancer and rectal cancer very easily. Generally, food items low in fiber, high in fat, and high in calories contribute to the development of cancerous elements in the colon.
History of genetic disorders in the family such as adenomatous polyposis, Gardner syndrome, and hereditary non-polyposis colon cancer amplifies the risk of developing colon cancer.
Symptoms of Colorectal Colon
Colon cancer can be detected by the presence of abnormal bowel movements such as constipation, diarrhoea, and inconsistency in the stool. Sometimes, patients suffering from colorectal cancer feel incomplete waste removal and abdominal pain. Abnormal changes in weight, unexplained weakness and the presence of rectal bleeding or blood in stool indicate the presence of cancer in the colon. A decrease in stool caliber and worsening constipation problems are a clear indicator of colon cancer.
Prevention Is Better Than Cure
Bringing changes in everyday lifestyle can help in the reduction of the risk of developing colon cancer. Consuming a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, minerals, fibers, antioxidants, and good cholesterol can be extremely beneficial to prevent colon cancer. Limiting the intake of alcohol and smoking can be two factors that help to reduce the chances of cancerous cells incised colon in both men and women. Maintaining weight is one essential part. Hence, to overcome the problem of obesity in people having sedentary lifestyles is important. Exercising every day for 30 minutes can be a great way to reduce the chances of colon cancer.
Detection of Colorectal Cancer
Colorectal cancer can be discovered using medical imaging- CT scan of chest, abdomen, and pelvis. In some cases, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) can also be used. The tumor can also be diagnosed through histopathological biopsy or surgery. Therefore, Colon tumor staging on the TNM system can be detected to discover metastases in lymph nodes.
The presence of cancerous clumps of cells called polyps inside the colon leads to the development of colorectal cancer. The detection takes place by various signs and symptoms such as constipation, unexplained weakness, diarrhoea, and inconsistency in the stool. Along with the reduction in stool caliber, abnormal changes in weight, and blood in the fecal matter. Colorectal cancer can develop due to older age, hereditary factors, unhealthy diet, alcoholism, smoking, sedentary lifestyle, and intestinal inflammation.
The endocrine system is a network of glands producing hormones that alter various functions across the human body. There are various endocrine glands such as the Pituitary gland, Hypothalamus, Parathyroid gland, Thymus, Adrenal gland, Testes, and Ovaries. These glands secrete and release chemical messengers called hormones. Alterations in the number of hormones secreted by endocrine glands lead to disorders.
Pituitary gland- Acromegaly
The pituitary gland is the master gland that releases somatostatin or growth hormone in the bloodstream. The hormone is essential to release insulin-like growth factors that maintain, repair, and divide tissues in various organs. Uncontrolled and excessive secretions of this hormone lead to acromegaly. The disease gives notice of enlargement of hands and feet, presence of enlarged facial bones, lips, and nose, irritating thickened and oily skin, limited joint movement, severe snoring, the occurrence of the irregular menstrual cycle in women, and erectile dysfunction in men.
Adrenal Gland- Cushing’s Disease
Adrenocorticotropic hormone is liberated by the Adrenal gland that produces cortisol. Cortisol is often referred to as the stress hormone-altering the mood of the person. Due to the inadequate release of cortisol, the person gets infected with Cushing’s disease. This disease causes an improper release of blood and saliva in the body at midnight, after the blood pressure, and hampers the body’s ability to fight in stressful situations. If the amount of cortisol exceeds beyond normal, the condition is Cushing’s syndrome. Various physical changes occur in the person when infected by Cushing’s disease. Abnormal weight gain, swollen face, presence of buffalo hump, excessive growth of hairs on face, chest, thighs, and abdomen, and presence of abdominal striae.
Adrenal Gland- Conn’s Syndrome
Conn’s system is a rare condition that occurs due to adrenal hormone imbalance. Also known as secondary hyperaldosteronism. The adrenal cortex gland stimulates angiotensin to secrete aldosterone hormone that controls potassium and salt levels in the body. It happens due to the development of a benign tumor in the adrenal cortex. Common signs of Conn’s disease are abnormal voidings, decreased muscular strength, and problems with vision. Along with high blood pressure that is difficult to control, excessive headaches, and twitching of muscles. The treatment is with the help of drugs and water pills to maintain the fluidity in the body.
Adrenal Gland- Addison’s Disease
Adrenal insufficiency is the common term to refer to Addison’s disease. The adrenal cortex releases aldosterone which is a hormone; part of the adrenal glands located above the kidneys. Extremely less and inaccurate secretion of cortisol and aldosterone leads to Addison’s disease that can cause hyperpigmentation, hypoglycemia, nausea, unexplained tiredness, loss of appetite, behavioral problems, and sexual dysfunction. Abnormal levels of glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid hormones create an imbalance in sodium and potassium ions of the body. A major symptom to detect this disease is hyperpigmentation that leads to the darkening of the skin.
Thyroid Gland- Hyperthyroidism
Hyperthyroidism is a hormonal condition that occurs due to the abnormal release of thyroxine hormone from the thyroid gland. The excess release of iodine, presence of tumors in the thyroid gland, inflammation of the thyroid gland, and high intake of tetraiodothyronine are some of the factors that cause hyperthyroidism. Common signs and symptoms that occur in Hyperthyroidism include arrhythmia, abnormal weight loss, tremor, enlargement of the thyroid gland, heart palpitations, tachycardia, thinning of the skin, and extreme fatigue.
Parathyroid gland- Hyperparathyroidism
Hyperparathyroidism is a hormonal disease which is because of excessive secretion of parathyroid hormone in the bloodstream. The parathyroid hormone maintains the balance of calcium ions in the body with the help of bones, intestines, and kidneys. Osteoporosis, development of kidney stones, forgetfulness, frequent illness with no apparent cause, nausea, excessive urge to urinate, and abdominal pain are some of the common signs and symptoms that occur in hyperparathyroidism.
Ovaries- Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)
Occurrence of abnormally long menstrual cycle and elevation in androgen levels are due to polycystic ovary syndrome in females. This syndrome is due to the imbalance of estrogen, progesterone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone in women. It leads to the elevation of male hormone- androgens that cause hirsutism and acne problems. Furthermore, enlargement of ovaries and irregular periods occur in this disease. Therefore, the disease can cause miscarriage, infertility, pre-diabetes, uterine bleeding, and endometrial cancer.
The proper functioning of messenger endocrine glands that produce and secrete chemical substances known as hormones in the bloodstream, governs the human body. These chemical substances help to control the functioning of organs and organ systems. The regulated bodily reflexes such as thirst, sexual desire, hunger, blood pressure, urge to urinate, and sleeping cycles. Any ambiguity or imbalance in the release of hormones causes various diseases that can have serious repercussions. Therefore, different hormones target and control unique functions across the body. For instance, growth hormone helps in the proper physical development of the body whereas estrogen and testosterone control the sexual characteristics in females and males respectively.
Gestational diabetes is a type of high blood sugar condition commonly affecting pregnant women. It is also called Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM).
Who is at a higher risk?
Ethnicity, family history, maternal and parental age, syndromes, previous glucose intolerance diagnosis, and obesity are the factors that cause gestational diabetes. Women between the age group of 25 to 35 having high blood pressure are at a higher risk of gestational diabetes. Gaining more weight than usual during pregnancy can be a factor leading to gestational diabetes. Women suffering from polycystic ovary syndrome or conditions similar to it which lead to insulin resistance are likely to develop gestational diabetes. A family history of diabetes can be a possible genetic factor facilitating the development of the disease. Generally, it is common in Native Americans, East Asians, Pacific Islanders, and Africans. Women expecting multiple babies or giving birth to a child weighing more than 9 pounds are likely to develop gestational diabetes mellitus.
How does the condition develop?
In the human body, carbohydrates from food sources are metabolized to glucose that travels through the body by blood. The pancreas is responsible for the release of insulin hormone that controls the levels of glucose in the human body. During pregnancy, there is an overall increase in hormones such as human placental lactogen (HPLC). Along with estrogen, progesterone, cortisol, and human placental growth hormone that resist the production of insulin. That is why pregnant women are resistant to insulin causing an overall increase in glucose levels. It leads to the development of pre-eclampsia that increases the blood pressure in the pregnant mother and the amount of protein in the urine. Gestational diabetes can increase the chances of surgical operation to remove the baby. Along with placental hormones, tumor necrosis factor-alpha is also responsible for insulin resistance in pregnant mothers.
Common symptoms of Gestational Diabetes
Symptoms of gestational diabetes include unexplained fatigue, excessive urination, impairment in vision, immoderate hunger, and thirst. The disease has two types, class A1 gestational diabetes and class A2 gestational diabetes. Class A1 gestational diabetes are easy to control by proper diet plans, whereas class A2 requires medications for controlling the condition.
How to prevent gestational diabetes?
It can be managed by monitoring the uptake of food sources. A diet rich in carbohydrates, proteins, and fats can prevent gestational diabetes. Food items rich in carbohydrates such as whole grains, milk, beans, starchy vegetables, peas, leguminous crops, low-sugar fruits, and brown rice should be included in the diet plan to reduce gestational diabetes. Protein sources such as poultry, tofu, milk, cheese, and eggs are crucial for pregnant women who have gestational diabetes. Sources of fat like nuts, almonds, peanuts, olive oil, and avocados must be consumed in ample amounts.
Women suffering from gestational diabetes should avoid sweetened beverages, alcoholic beverages, sweetened oatmeal, fried foods, and baked items containing excess sugar. Regular exercise and a properly balanced diet can reduce the chances of gestational diabetes. Exercise, yoga, running, pilates, and walking are effective to treat the disease. Insulin injections are in administration during chronic conditions to pregnant women. Taking vitamin D supplements facilitates its prevention.
Diagnosis of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus
The American Diabetes Association advises routine checkups of pregnant women during 24 to 28 weeks to detect gestational diabetes. Blood tests and urine tests are useful to detect the levels of blood sugar in the body. Urine tests detect the presence of glucosuria. In a one-step test, a woman is given a carbohydrate-rich solution to test fasting blood sugar levels at regular intervals of one hour. If the fasting blood sugar is greater than 92 milligrams per deciliter, the patient is likely to have gestational diabetes. In a two-step test, fasting is not necessary. If the blood report shows blood sugar more than 130 milligrams per deciliter, the patient has GDM.
Prognosis of gestational diabetes
The disease can cause severe complications like macrosomia in the child. Along with premature death of the baby, hypoglycemia in the baby, and deficiency of minerals in the newborn child. Mothers delivering children after gestational diabetes are at a greater risk of acquiring diabetes mellitus. The child born to affect mothers may have jaundice, obesity, and type 2 diabetes.
Gestational diabetes is a type of high blood sugar condition commonly affecting pregnant women. The disease is of two categories, class A1 and class A2 gestational diabetes. Type A1 gestational diabetes includes abnormal oral glucose tolerance levels. While type A2 includes abnormal oral glucose tolerance tests and glucose levels. Ethnicity, family history, maternal and parental age, syndromes, and obesity are a few factors that potentially cause the onset of gestational diabetes. The disease is easier to control by following a diet rich in carbohydrates, proteins, and triglycerides. Rather than oral medications and insulin. It is good to avoid sweetened beverages, alcoholic beverages, and sweetened baked items if suffering from gestational diabetes.
Biotechnology has enabled numerous advancements in our living world. Biotechnology is a brand of biology that extracts living cells, enzymes, or genes from living organisms to produce products of interest. This technological development has helped to make scientific applications more advanced that help in curing diseases and addressing other issues. Furthermore, there are various subcategories in Biotechnology that have developed processes and products of our interest.
It is a subcategory of biotechnology that focuses on advancing and uplifting the agricultural sector by increasing the yield per hectare, reducing stresses on crops, and protecting the crops from the attack of pesticides and prey.
Protecting Cotton Plants
Biotechnology has developed a unique way to save cotton plants from the attack of pests. Bacillus thuringiensis is a fungus that kills lepidopterans, coleopterans, and dipterans by producing toxic insecticidal proteins. This fungus is sprayed on the cotton plants that protect it from these insects. If an insect consumes the cotton sprayed with the fungi, the insecticidal protein present in the fungi gets activated. Therefore, it causes the phagocytosis of the insect by attaching the cells of the gut. Biotechnology has helped to identify the cryIAc and cryIIAb genes in the fungi that help in protecting commercial cotton plants.
Producing Desirable Organisms
Biotechnology has enabled the breeding of animals to produce organisms with desirable qualities. Through cross-breeding, the genes of superior males and superior females of two different breeds mate to produce offspring containing the characteristics of both the parents. For example, bikaneri ewes and Merino rams mate to produce a desirable Hisardale sheep.
Biotechnology has improved the chances of survival during natural calamities by presuming stress resistance crops that can withstand extreme temperatures and low availability of water resources.
Transgenic animals have become an effective tool to cure diseases such as emphysema (by extracting alpha 1 antitrypsin FROM THE TRANSGENIC ANIMALS), phenylketonuria, and cystic fibrosis. Alpha-lactalbumin produces protein-rich milk.
Biotechnology has a massive impact on the production of vaccines for immunization. Dead or weak microorganisms infect in the form of vaccines to facilitate the production of antibodies, memorized them, and later manufacture them by the immune cells.
Production of insulin
Using Escherichia coli, biotechnology enables the production of artificial insulin which was earlier extracted from slaughtered pigs and cattle. Scientists have successfully developed a way to produce insulin by combining chain A and chain B with disulfide bonds. Hence, artificial insulin is widely used by patients suffering from diabetes mellitus, diabetes ketoacidosis, gestational diabetes, and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic states.
Adenosine deaminase deficiency adversely affects the immune system of a child due to the absence of a gene coding for adenosine deaminase. Using biotechnology, gene therapy is in successful use to cure this deficiency in the embryonic stage. Adding retroviral factors to the lymphocytes of the patients helps in curing this disease.
Environmental Biotechnology focuses on improving the environment, creating innovative ways to dispose of waste, reduce pollution, and create a healthy atmosphere. So, bioremediation is a method to treat wastes by Enzyme bioreactors.
Other branches of biotechnology
Bioinformatics is a concept of the computerization of biological data. Therefore, it focuses on analyzing, deleting, and stimulating genes, proteins, and enzymes. Red biotechnology is a sub-branch of biotechnology dealing with medicines and pharmaceutical products. It involves producing antibiotics, regenerative processes, and new diagnostic methods to treat diseases. Moreover, the branch of biology is highly valuable to produce combustible car engine fuels. This does not cause environmental pollution using corn.
Using biotechnology to modernize the industrial sector has been an advantageous option. Enzymes, proteins, and genes from microbes have helped in various industries such as the paper industry, pulp industry, chemical industry, detergent production, and production of biogas and biofuels. Yellow biotechnology is a branch of biotechnology referring to the use of biological techniques in the food industry. Hence, it includes the manufacturing of wine, cheese, and beer through fermentation using bacterias, yeasts, and fungi. Streptococcus lacticus, and Penicillium roqueforti are the two bacteria’s that help in fermentation and production of cheese. Dark Biotechnology involves the production of biological weapons using microorganisms that can be useful in times of critical conditions. Hence, it has enabled the extraction of useful genes from spiders to process silk proteins in the milk of organisms.
Therefore, know that biotechnology has abundant uses. From computational use of biology to solve technical problems. To produce genetically modified organisms for creating desirable species, biotechnology has evolved the world. Through this biological branch, the production of biological weapons, bio-oils, production of transgenic plants and animals is possible. Along with regenerative therapies, treatment of diseases, production of food, and the production of industrial products have also been made possible. However, genetically modified crops have been created to increase the yield in the agricultural sector. Therefore, to cure adenosine deaminase deficiency, gene therapy has been developed. Through a biotechnological application.
Infections that transmit from infected individuals to other people during coitus or intercourse are called sexually transmitted infections (STIs). There are various types of STIs including Chlamydia, Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, Trichomoniasis, Genital herpes, Gonorrhea, Syphilis, Human papillomavirus, Hepatitis B, etc. Some of the common symptoms of STIs include frequent discharge from the penis, constant itching and irritation in the vagina, blisters and rashes in genitals, severe abdominal pain, sore throat, irregular menstrual cycle, and redness near the anus.
Aids refers to Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome that is caused by the Human immunodeficiency virus that spreads by seminal or vaginal secretions of the infected person. It can only transmit through fluids such as blood, semen, anal mucous, and fluids of the vagina. HIV attacks on the CD4 glycoproteins found on the surface of T-lymphocytes, macrophages, and monocytes lowering the immunity of the body. T-lymphocytes act as HIV manufacturing machines producing a massive amount of foreign virus that hampers the proper functioning of the immune system.
Signs and symptoms
Symptoms of AIDS include prolonged fever, unusual lesions, unexplained tiredness, persistent skin rashes, development of ulcers in the mouth and genital regions, oral thrush, sore throat, and chronic diarrhea.
AIDS discloses by ELISA test, antibody test, and nucleic acid testing.
In nucleic acid tests, they take blood from the patient’s vein in a sample test tube. It involves the preparation of the sample using the patient’s blood in the laboratory. Amplification of RNA using TMA- transcription-mediated amplification, and detection of HIV in the amplicon. The test gives a statistical report of the number of viruses present in the infected person.
ELIZA test- Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay is another test to detect the presence of HIV by detecting the existence of antibodies to the virus. In this test, the blood sample or saliva of the patient is collected and tested further by culturing it into a petri dish.
Syphilis is an STI by the bacteria Treponema pallidum that enters the mucous membrane through cuts and abrasions on the skin. The bacteria enter the body in a dormant stage and have the potential to become active after years of transmission. This, therefore, causes damage to the heart, brain, and other accessory organs.
Signs and symptoms
Syphilis infection can be recognized by monitoring the presence of bumps or tumors on genitals, dementia, development of sores in oral, anal, and genital areas, painless ulcers, headaches impairing concentration, and vaginal discharge.
Various tests to detect Syphilis infection include
VDRL test- It stands for Venereal disease research laboratory test that involves collecting and testing blood samples and spinal fluids of the patient to detect the presence of antibodies against the bacterium.
The rapid immunochromatographic test requires the use of nitrocellulose strips along with antigen sites. If the sample of blood, plasma, or serum of the patient contains the bacteria, it will coagulate on the antigen site of the nitrocellulose strip.
Rapid plasma reagin test is another laboratory test to screen out syphilis bacteria. The blood sample of the patient is collected and diagnosed to detect the presence of non-specific antibodies.
Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a bacteria responsible for an STI with the name, gonorrhea. Oral sex, anal sex, and unprotected vaginal sex can transmit the infection from moist areas of the infected person. Therefore the moist areas such as the urethra, vagina, eyes, throat, and anus.
Signs and symptoms
Yeast candidiasis, bacterial infections, watery discharge, and increased discharge in periods. Along with pain during coitus, extreme abdominal pain, and frequent urination are some of the symptoms of Gonorrhoea.
One method to detect the appearance of gonorrhea-causing bacterium is by collecting and reviewing fluids from genitals- penis, rectum, and vagina.
If the patient involves in oral or anal sex, swab test samples from the throat and rectum also detect gonorrhea. The urine or swab samples help to screen out the DNA of the bacteria.
Chlamydia trachomatis bacteria is responsible for the transmission of Chlamydia. Hence, the disease may occur asymptomatic that may lead to serious health problems in the latter part of life.
Signs and symptoms
Chlamydia is a curable disease that causes an elevation in vaginal secretion, abdominal pain during intercourse, swelling in testicles, and irregular bleeding in the infected individual.
NAAT – It refers to the nucleic acid amplification test that detects the genetic material of the bacteria. This is by amplifying it on a cultured medium. A vaginal sample or urinal sample of the patient is of use in this diagnostic test.
However, a swab test is another diagnostic measure to detect the existence of trachomatis bacteria. In this, the doctor cultures fluid from the cervical to detect the presence of antigens.
The causes of sexually transmitted infections are bacterias, viruses, and parasites. These can enter through the genitals because of unprotected coitus, sharing needles, or through blood transfusions. Creating awareness among the people to use condoms, not keeping monogamous relationships, prevents infection. Testing as soon as there are unusual symptoms in the genitals infections also prevents infections. Not all STIs are deadly such as Gonorrhoea, Syphilis, Trichomoniasis, and Chlamydia which are curable by antibiotics. However, HPV, Herpes, and HIV are not fully curable diseases.
Aids refers to Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. It is caused by HIV (Human immunodeficiency virus). Aids is a sexually transmitted infection. It can spread by having multiple sexual partners, from pregnant mother to the fetus during childbirth, or from mother to child by breastfeeding. The disease can be detected by an Enzyme-linked immunodeficiency sorbent assay test, nucleic acid test, and antigen screening test.
How Does The Virus Enter The Body?
The human immunodeficiency virus can spread by seminal or vaginally secretions of the infected person. It enters the person through unprotected coitus, anal sex, or oral intercourse. The virus can also enter by the usage of contaminated needles and syringes. Infected mothers are carriers of Aids as the virus can pass to the developing fetus through the amniotic fluid and blood. Many hospitals restrict the transmission of HIV during blood transfusions by detecting the presence of HIV antibodies. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome can be transmitted through infected tattoos and piercing needles as well.
Signs and Symptoms For Detecting AIDS
Acute or Primary Infection Stage
Initially, when the virus enters the body of a person, it produces symptoms similar to flu. The symptoms include a fever that can last from several months to years, headaches that reduce concentration levels, lethargy, fatigue and tiredness, swelling of the lymph nodes. The sudden appearance of rashes on the body, development of ulcers in the mouth and genital region, chronic diarrhea, oral thrush, sore throat, and pain in the muscles and joints.
Clinical Latent Infection Stage
The human immunodeficiency virus is present in the body during this stage but fails to show symptoms in certain patients. This stage can last for several years but does not imply that the virus is expelled out of the body.
Presence Of Heightened Symptoms In The Final Stage
The virus weakens the immune system of the body by attacking the CD4 glycoprotein. This is present on the surface of T-lymphocytes, monocytes, and macrophages of the body. The virus enters the CD4 cells and replicates itself using reverse transcriptase enzymes to produce multiple copies of its kind. They cause a progressive decrease in the number of T-helper cells leading to the weakening of the immune system. In such a case, the person shows chronic symptoms including a rapid increase in the body temperature, fatigue, and dizziness that restricts the infected individual to carry out day-to-day activities, sudden weight loss, nausea, vomiting, the presence of shingles, and pneumonia.
According to the Centre for Disease Control And Prevention (CDC), the virus at the final stage badly affects the immune system of the people. This makes it prone to opportunistic infections. Excessive sweat, chills, prolonged unusual lesions, unexplained exhaustion while working, persistent skin rashes, swollen lymphatic glands, and intermittent fever are some of the symptoms that occur in the final stage of infection. Yeast and bacterial infections are common in infected women.
Look For These Signs
Some other signs and symptoms of Aids include bleeding from anus, vagina, or mouth, progressive lack of control over bodily reflexes and voluntary muscular movement, swelling in the throat, armpit, or groin, presence of bruises, the occurrence of deep and dry cough, and deposition of white coat on the tongue.
Development of itchy, red, painful rashes on the face, hands, and feet are common in Aids along with bumps on the skin. HIV fever is persistent and recurrent for an initial three to four weeks in the infected person. Aids fever is generally accompanied by tiredness and swelling in various body parts. The fever may range from 99.8°F to 100.8°F in infected individuals. One of the major symptoms to screen out Aids in the early stage is the presence of swollen lymph glands in the throat, armpit, and groin region of the infected person. Infected women may experience problems like vaginal candidiasis and tuberculosis.
In certain cases, depression, memory loss, mental confusion, and various neurological disorders have also been detected as signs of Aids. Aids cause increased breakouts of other sexually transmitted infections such as human papillomavirus (genital warts), gonorrhea, and syphilis. It may also lead to pelvic inflammatory diseases that cause infections in the uterus and fallopian tubes.
Infections That Commonly Occur During Aids
As mentioned, Aids causes vaginal candidiasis that leads to inflammation of the vaginal parts. It is a potential cause of a fungal infection- pneumocystis pneumonia. As the virus weakens the immune system, the infected person can catch cytomegalovirus. It causes damage to the digestive tract, respiratory tract, and eyes.
The virus causing Aids can only transmit from the infected person through fluids. Such as blood, semen, breastplate, anal mucous, and fluids of the vagina. It does not spread through the air, touching the infected person, or possible exposure of sweat, tears, sneeze, cough, and urine of the infected person. Also, only limited fluids can cause potential transmission of Aids. Looking for early symptoms such as fever, diarrhea, fatigue, swelling in lymph nodes, and other signs can help in the early treatment of the disease.