It is a condition when cells of the body begin to grow out of control. Liver cancer is the condition in which cells of the liver (hepatocytes) divide abnormally. Therefore, tumors develop in the liver cells which may cause jaundice, weight loss, stomach pain, tiredness, and vomiting.
Symptoms Of Liver Cancer
Having one or more symptoms from the list below does not mean you have cancer. Most of the symptoms are due to other conditions. Still, if you are facing any of the suspicions you must consult a doctor and get examined. The signs and symptoms of liver cancer are not visible up to later stages. Following are the most common symptoms of liver cancer.
- Weight loss
- Loss of appetite
- Feeling very full after a small meal
- Nausea or vomiting
- An enlarged liver
- An enlarged spleen
- Abdominal pain
- Skin and eyes turn to yellow color, which might be a condition of jaundice.
- Feeling tired and having no energy.
Some liver tumors are responsible for the production of hormones that affect organs other than the liver that may cause the following complications.
- Hypercalcemia (a condition where calcium level increases in the blood) can cause nausea, constipation, weakness, or muscle problems.
- Hypoglycemia ( a condition where sugar level decreases in the blood) can cause fatigue and fainting.
- Gynecomastia (Breast enlargement) and shrinkage of testicles in men.
- Erythrocytosis (Red blood cells increases) can cause someone to look red and flushed.
- Increased cholesterol levels.
Here are some tests and procedures through which liver cancer can be diagnosed:-
Blood Tests- Various blood tests help to detect abnormalities in the liver.
Imaging Tests- Some imaging tests are recommended by some doctors such as CT Scan, Ultrasound, and MRI.
Using a sample of liver tissue for testing- Sometimes, a piece of liver tissue is obtained for laboratory testing to make a definitive diagnosis of liver cancer. During this, the doctor inserts a thin needle through your skin and into the liver to obtain a tissue sample. The tissue sample is then examined under the microscope to detect the presence of cancer cells. It has a higher risk of bleeding, bruising, and infections.
Determining the stage of the liver cancer
Doctors determine the extent of cancer after diagnosis. It helps in determining the size and location of the cancer cells. So, imaging tests help determine the stage of cancer.
Treatment for primary cancers depends on the stage of the disease, your age, health, and personal preferences.
- Surgery to remove the tumor- Sometimes, a doctor recommends removing the tumor and liver tissues that surround the tumor only if the tumor is in a small portion and the liver is functioning properly. This is an option for you also depends on the location of the cancer and the functioning of your liver.
- Liver transplant-The infectious liver is surgically replaced by a healthy liver.
- Heating cancer cells- Electric current helps to destroy cancer cells by radiofrequency ablation. By imaging tests, a doctor inserts one or more thin needles into small incisions into your abdomen. In other words, tumor cells are heated with an electric current to destroying the cancer cells.
- Freezing cancer cells- Cyroabation uses extreme cold to destroy cancer cells. During this doctor inserts an instrument containing liquid nitrogen directly onto liver tumors.
- Injecting alcohol into the tumor- Pure alcohol is injected into the tumor through injections. Alcohol kills the cancer cells
High-powered energy from x-rays and protons helps to destroy cancer cells.
It is an option if, other treatment may not work or not possible. During beam radiation therapy you lie on a table and a machine directs the beam at a precise on your body.
Drugs or Chemotherapy
Drugs help in the killing of infected cells and restrict their abnormal multiplication.
Regular screening and early diagnosis result in more effective treatments. There is no solution for liver cancer at a high stage, but these treatments may suit some patients better than others. Patients need much information about liver cancer so that they can make the right decision. The best treatment for cancer patients is coping and support. So, one should keep their family and friends close, should talk to them about their hopes and fears.
According to psychiatrists, fear of the hospitals is known as nosocomephobia also called white coat syndrome. Such individuals feel abnormal leading to change in normal bodily functions while visiting hospitals. An individual may experience fear of visiting hospitals due to a negative or traumatic experience associated with a healthcare provider or hospital visit.
It’s essential to address nosocomephobia so that patients can get the required care and treatment.
A person can experience claustrophobia while doctors run CT scans, MRI scans, or other similar tests that require enclosed spaces. People with hemophilia are afraid of blood and therefore avoid visiting hospitals. Individuals suffering from atelophobia are afraid of healthcare providers such as doctors, nurses, and dentists.
Signs And Symptoms Of Nosocomephobia
- The rise in blood pressure
- Heart palpitations
- The feeling of being uncomfortable and anxious
- Excessive sweating (not due to weather)
- Trembling, shivering, or shaking
- Avoidance behavior or refusal to visit hospitals
- Shallow or rapid breathing with obsessive worry
Ways To Overcome Nosocomephobia
Acknowledge your fear
Every individual is afraid of something or the other. People need to acknowledge and understand their fear. Identifying and admitting the fear is the first step in overcoming them.
Identify and understand your symptoms
Getting nervous is different from having a phobia while visiting hospitals. Identify all the signs and symptoms faced by you while visiting hospitals. Check for symptoms such as palpitations, blurry vision, dizziness, sweating, or chest pain. Panic attacks need to be addressed carefully and hence seeking medical help is important.
Trust your doctor
Feelings of stress and anxiety reduce if one syncs with the person trying to help you. Establish trust and believe in the skills and abilities of your practitioner. Express gratitude towards doctors, nurses, and paramedics staff.
Talk to a therapist or your doctor about your fear. Learn about your disease, treatment methods, medications, and process of healing. If you’re facing panic attacks, try meditation or breathing exercises to alleviate anxiety and stress. Do not look for negative or traumatic medical stories. Gradually, start visiting hospitals for regular checkups. If you’re afraid of the checkup rooms, relax in the cafeteria with coffee and music on headphones.
The fear of the hospitals is known as ‘nosocomephobia’ or white coat syndrome. Individuals suffering from this fear show various signs and symptoms such as heart palpitations, excessive sweating, trembling, shivering, shaking, nausea, vomiting, and avoidance behavior or refusal to visit hospitals. Individuals may have fear of visiting hospitals in case of negative or traumatic past experiences associated with a healthcare provider or hospital visit. To overcome the fear of hospitals, one needs to trust and respect the hospital staff. Keep a journal to record all the symptoms you faced in a hospital. Try to seek professional help to cope up with nosocomephobia. Meditation, breathing exercises, and positive affirmations can help individuals to build positivity. One can also ask family members for help. Educate yourself and learn about your disease, medications, symptoms, treatment methods, and healing process to overcome the anxiety.
Any infection that spreads through sexual contact is termed as sexually transmitted infections or venereal diseases (VD). Chlamydia, trichomoniasis, HIV, herpes, gonorrhea, hepatitis, etc are some of the examples of STIs. In this blog, you’ll find information about trichomoniasis disease.
Meaning Of Trichomonas
According to the Centers for Disease Control And Prevention (CDC), trichomoniasis is a sexually transmitted infection that is caused by the parasite Trichomonas vaginalis. The parasite transmits from an infected person to another individual via sexual intercourse or shared sex toys. The growth of parasites in females affects the vagina and urethra. Males experience infections in the penis. Trichomonas bacteria can not transfer through hugging, kissing, sitting on similar toilet seats, or sharing towels or dishes. Genital contact is the only path through which bacteria pass.
Trichomonas vaginalis is an anaerobic protozoan parasite that causes symptomatic infections in males and females. It is responsible for urogenital infections leading to a frothy greenish vaginal or penile discharge. Preterm delivery, mortality, and severe changes in body weight are the extreme complications of Trichomonas vaginalis. The protozoan lacks mitochondria, essential enzymes, and cytochromes required for its survival. Trichomonas vaginalis causes severe damage to the vaginal lining that makes females susceptible to an HIV infection.
According to the American Sexual Health Association (ASHA), only 30% of people report symptoms of trichomoniasis. Others do not report any symptoms. Generally, the symptoms of trich are visible after 7 to 28 days of infection.
Symptoms Of Trichomoniasis In Females
- Unpleasant smelling vaginal discharge usually white, gray, yellow, or green
- Itching and burning sensation in the vagina
- Frequent urges to urinate
- Vaginal bleeding or spotting
- Pain while urinating or having sex
- Redness, swelling, and inflammation of the genital area
Symptoms Of Trichomoniasis In Males
- Pain and irritation in the penis
- Frequent discharge from the penis
- Pain and burning sensation while urinating or ejaculating
- Pain and discomfort while urinating
- Frequent urges to urinate
Who’s At Risk?
Individuals who have multiple sexual partners are at a greater risk of acquiring trichomoniasis. Any person with a history of other sexually transmitted infections is more likely to acquire trichomoniasis. Sexual intercourse without condoms makes the person prone to catching the parasite. Previous trichomoniasis transmissions make a person more susceptible to develop trichomoniasis.
Treatment For Trichomoniasis
Antibiotics such as metronidazole and tinidazole are helpful to treat trichomoniasis. Avoid drinking alcohol awaking antibiotics for trichomoniasis as it may lead to severe nausea and vomiting. Individuals should get tested if their sexual partners have been diagnosed with trichomoniasis. Above all, avoid any type of sexual contact until the infection is treated.
Complications Associated With Trichomoniasis
Trichomoniasis can cause severe damage to the vaginal lining making females more susceptible to an HIV infection. Similarly, trich can also lead to other sexually transmitted infections such as gonorrhea, bacterial vaginosis, and chlamydia. If left untreated, it may cause pelvic inflammatory diseases. Furthermore, it may block the fallopian tube due to scar tissue. Trichomoniasis can also cause infertility and severe pelvic pain. A pregnant woman who is infected with trich may deliver a premature child or child having a lower weight. The child may also acquire trichomoniasis through the birth canal. However, the condition is rare.
Prevention Of Trichomoniasis
To prevent trichomoniasis, it is advisable to use latex condoms. For instance, condoms help to prevent the transfer of parasites through the genital fluid by covering either the cervix (female condoms) or penis (male condoms).
Douching is a method in which females clean the vagina with vinegar and water. Females use douching to change the vaginal odor. Females must avoid douching as douching can leach out healthy and helpful bacterias.
Effective communication is required with sexual partners about history, other sexual partners, and potential risk of any STI. Therefore, limit the number of sexual partners as having multiple sexual partners amplifies the risk of catching an STI.
Testing Of Trichomoniasis
Vaginal fluid is collected from females to detect the presence of the Trichomonas vaginalis parasite. In addition, a urine sample is taken from males. The samples are tested under an electron microscope to detect whether the parasite is present or not. Rapid antigen tests and nucleic tests are also for testing trichomoniasis.
Trichomonasvaginalis is an anaerobic protozoan parasite that causes a sexually transmitted infection named trichomoniasis. The parasite transmits from an infected person to another individual via sexual intercourse. In addition, the signs and symptoms associated with trichomoniasis in females include the presence of unpleasant smelling vaginal discharge, itching and burning sensation in the vagina, vaginal bleeding, vaginal pain while urinating or having sex, and redness, swelling, and inflammation of the genital area. The symptoms in males are penile discharge, frequent urges to urinate, discomfort while urinating, and having coitus. Therefore, people must get tested.
According to the World Health Organization, sexual health is the overall well-being of individuals, couples, and families. Sexually Transmitted Infections can lead to health problems such as infertility, blindness, severe organ damage, and even cancer of the genitals. Therefore, the topic of sexual health needs proper consideration and guidance.
Every person must achieve sexual health depending on their accessibility to standard quality information about sex, sexuality, sexual health care, and sexual orientation. So, people need to be aware of the complications of sexually transmitted infections, unintended pregnancy, abortion, sexual violence, sexual dysfunction, and harmful sexual practices.
Comprehensive Sexual Health Panel
The comprehensive sexual health panel is a test panel comprising 10 tests for STDs. The test is ideal for individuals who have engaged in sexual intercourse or similar activities. The test involves the examination of genital fluid. In other words, blood tests, plasma tests, and urine tests help in the diagnosis of STIs. No fasting is required for a comprehensive sexual health panel test. The list of 10 STIs diagnosed by a comprehensive sexual health panel are-
A plasma test is used to test the presence of syphilis virus- Treponema pallidum. In addition, the test displays accurate results after 3 to 6 weeks of exposure. Following are the symptoms of syphilis.
- Presence of bumps or tumors on genitals
- Headaches and impairing concentration
- Vaginal discharge.
- Development of sores in oral, anal, and genital areas
- Presence of painless ulcers
Hepatitis A, B, and C
A blood test helps to diagnosis hepatitis. For hepatitis A, 2 to 7 weeks are required after testing after exposure. Whereas, hepatitis B and hepatitis C require testing after 3 8 and 8 to 9 weeks after exposure respectively. Following are the signs and symptoms associated with hepatitis.
- Discharge of dark-colored urine
- Presence of yellow eyes and skin
- Unexplained fatigue and tiredness
- Flu-like symptoms
- Abdominal pain and spasm
HIV 1 and HIV 2
For testing the presence of human immunodeficiency virus, blood samples are collected from the patient’s body giving results within 9 to 11 days post possible exposure. Following are the signs and symptoms associated with HIV.
- Development of ulcers in the mouth and genital regions, oral thrush, sore throat,
- Prolonged fever
- Unusual lesions
- Unexplained fatigue
- Persistent skin rashes
Herpes-type 1 and type 2
Blood samples are collected from the patient’s body giving results within four to six weeks after possible exposure to detect the presence of the herpes simplex virus (HSV). Herpes-type 1 causes oral herpes resulting in the development of cold sores and fever blisters on the face and mouth. Herpes-type 2 is genital herpes causing pain, discomfort, and inflammation of genital areas. Following are the signs and symptoms associated with herpes.
- Presence of blister sores
- Pain and discomfort while urinating
- Swelling of lymph nodes
- Unexplained and prolonged fatigue, tiredness, and fever
- Loss of appetite
- Eye pain and eye discharge
A urine test helps to determine the presence of Chlamydia trachomatis, a bacteria responsible for causing STI chlamydia. The accurate results are available within two to five days after possible exposure. Following are the signs and symptoms associated with Chlamydia.
- Burning sensation while urinating
- Pain in testicles (in men) and cervix (in females)
- Pain during sex
- Continuous vaginal discharge
- Greenish-yellow discharge from the penis
A urine test helps to diagnose gonorrhea, STI caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae. After that, the accurate results are available within two to six days after possible exposure. Following are the signs and symptoms associated with gonorrhea.
- Redness and swelling of the penile tissues
- Prolonged sore throat
- Pus-like discharge from the penis (in men) and vagina (in females)
- Changes in frequency of urination
- Pain and inflammation in testicles
It’s Important To Consult A Doctor
Therefore, if any individual is facing any problems during intercourse, while urinating, or experiencing discomfort in the genital areas, it is advisable to consult a doctor. In addition, patients must communicate following things with the doctor.
- If your partner had other sexual partners
- Medications consumed by the person (for instance- birth control pills or hormone regulation tablets)
- Any suspected exposure to sexually transmitted infections
- Types of protections used while having oral, anal, and vaginal intercourse
To sum up, sexually transmitted infections can cause severe health problems if left unintended. The topic of sexual health needs proper consideration and guidance. So. every person must achieve sexual health depending on their accessibility to standard quality information about sex, sexuality, sexual health care, and sexual orientation. Furthermore, individuals must seek professional and certified medical help in case of any suspicion regarding the presence of STIs. To conclude, the comprehensive sexual health panel test helps in the diagnosis of 10 STIs- Syphilis, HIV 1, HIV 2, Hepatitis A, B, and C, Herpes type 1 as 2, Gonorrhea, and Chlamydia.
Normal vaginal bleeding that occurs every month in women is known as Menstruation. Menstruation is also called periods. Besides vaginal bleeding, women experience abdominal cramping, mood swings, lower back pain, headaches, extreme fatigue, and bloating or sore breasts. Here’s a list of several menstrual problems that may need assistance.
Heavy Periods (Menorrhagia)
Heavy menstrual bleeding is referred to as Menorrhagia wherein bleeding lasts longer than 7 days. The condition affects the sleeping cycle, causes abdominal pain, and can potentially lead to anemia.
Causes Of Menorrhagia
Vaginal infections, non-cancerous uterus tumors, puberty, changes in lifestyle or diet, inflammation of the cervical cavity, and hypothyroidism are some of the causes of heavy menstrual bleeding.
- The body regulates the balance of estrogen and progesterone during a normal menstrual cycle regulating the uterine lining. But if there is a hormonal imbalance, the body may produce excessive endometrial lining leading to heavy subsequent bleedings.
- Non-cancerous or benign tumors are present in the uterus during the childbearing years. They can cause heavy menstrual bleeding. Additionally, uterine fibroids are also considered a cause of prolonged vaginal bleeding.
- Heavy menstrual bleeding occurs as a side effect of non-hormonal intrauterine devices.
- Menorrhagia may occur due to ovarian dysfunction. Annovaluation is the condition wherein ovaries fail to release an egg. The condition leads to hormonal imbalance causing heavier vaginal bleeding than usual.
Symptoms Of Menorrhagia
- Longer menstrual cycles (longer than a week)
- Soaking of one or more than one sanitary pad/ tampons in an hour
- Requirement of using double sanitary pads
- Presence of quarter-sized blood clots
- Extreme tiredness, shortness of breath, fatigue, and discomfort
- Not being able to do daily activities due to heavy menstrual bleeding
- Long-lasting pain in the lower abdomen
Amenorrhea (Absence Of Menstruation)
The absence of periods is known as Amenorrhea. Primary Amenorrhea occurs when periods are absent in females by the age of 15. Secondary Amenorrhea occurs when menstruation is absent more than three types in a row. Rigorous athletic activities, eating disorders such as Anorexia nervosa, and a family history of Amenorrhoea are some of the risk factors of Amenorrhoea.
Causes Of Amenorrhea
- Natural Amenorrhea occurs due to pregnancy, menopause, and breastfeeding.
- It has been found that those females who take contraceptives or birth control pills may experience Amenorrhea.
- Medications such as antidepressants, tablets for controlling blood pressure, chemotherapeutic chemicals, antipsychotics, and allergy tablets cause menstruation to stop.
- Women engaged in rigorous exercises such as ballet, training, etc. often experience Amenorrhea.
- Hormonal imbalances occurring due to polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), premature menopause, thyroid malfunction lead to Amenorrhea.
Symptoms Of Amenorrhea
- Lack of menstruation
- Milky discharge from nipples
- Severe headaches
- Additional growth of facial hairs
- Vision problems
- No breast development in case of primary Amenorrhea
Premenstrual syndrome (PMS)
Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is the condition wherein all the symptoms arise before menstruation. This brings various uncomfortable symptoms that gradually go away when the period begins. PMS arises due to hormonal fluctuations, changes in the levels of serotonin (neurotransmitters), and depression.
Symptoms Of Premenstrual syndrome
- Females may experience various emotional and behavioral symptoms including mood swings, social withdrawal, anxiety, changes in appetite, lack of concentration, and Irritability.
- Severe pain in the abdominal region, joints, and pelvic muscles.
- Weight gain due to fluid retention
- Alcohol intolerance
- Tenderness in breast
Dysmenorrhea (Painful Periods)
A condition in which females experience severe and frequent menstrual cramps is termed dysmenorrhea. Primary dysmenorrhea occurs when menstruation starts casting severe cramping. Secondary dysmenorrhea occurs due to physical causes. Smoking, heavy vaginal bleeding, irregular menstrual cycles, age under 20, and family history are some of the causes of painful periods.
Causes Of Dysmenorrhea
- Endometriosis is a condition in which similar tissue grows along the uterine lining and other regions such as ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, and bladder. Changes in the hormones cause this lining to break down in the form of vaginal bleeding that causes pain and discomfort.
- Growth of fibroids outside, inside, and in the uterine walls causes painful periods.
- Medical conditions such as Crohn’s disease and urinary disorders often lead to painful menstruation.
Symptoms Of Dysmenorrhea
- Presence of menstrual cramping in the lower abdomen
- Pain in lower back, stomach, and joints
- Nausea, fatigue, tiredness, diarrhea, and vomiting
Regular vaginal bleeding that occurs every month in women is termed Menstruation. Being fit physically, mentally, and socially is extremely important and determines menstrual health. Females need to keep the genital areas clean, hygienic, and comfortable to avoid any discrepancy and discomfort. It’s advisable to reach out to professionals and health care providers in case of any menstrual complexity or disorder. To treat menstrual problems and pelvic inflammatory diseases, antibiotics and other medications are advised by the doctor. Avoiding stress, excessive salt and sugar in diet, caffeine, smoking, and alcohol can help to improve menstrual health.
The topmost layer of our human body, skin, acts as a protective barrier against mechanical, physical, and thermal injuries. So, the skin helps in reducing the harmful effect of Ultraviolet radiations and regulated body temperature. Furthermore, it regulates the production of vitamin D and acts as a sensory organ for various receptors.
Skin problems can occur due to situational causes or genetic factors and can be temporary or permanent. So, bacteria trapped in skin pores, viruses, fungus, allergens, genetic factors, and irritants are common causes of skin disorders.
Hives are a skin problem resulting in raised welts on the skin. Hives are generally caused by allergic reactions and appear pinkish-red in color. Allergens such as pollen, medications, animal dander, dust mites, insect stings, and food items cause Urticaria. Hives are round-shaped welts, itchy in nature, and pinkish-red in appearance. Hence, in severe life-threatening allergic reactions, hives appear with breathing difficulties, dizziness, and nausea. Furthermore, health conditions such as thyroid disease, type 1 diabetes, celiac disease, or lupus, hives cause chronic problems.
Most acne problems are very commonly observed in individuals causing whiteheads, blackheads, and pimples. Acne forms due to oily dead skin cells and hair follicles on the uppermost layer. Therefore, acne can lead to emotional distress, darkening of the skin, and scar formation if not treated.
Symptoms Of Acne Vulgaris
- Growth of close plugged whiteheads pores
- Growth of close plugged blackheads pores
- Big solid lumps under the skin
- Appearance of pimples
- Cystic lesions
Atopic dermatitis is also known as eczema that leads to redness and itchiness in the skin. Usually, it develops in early childhood, common in people having a family history. Atopic dermatitis may develop due to heat, sweat, hot showers, physical irritants such as dirt, dust, allergens such as pollen, strenuous exercise, and scratching. Although there is no known cure for eczema, moisturizing the skin can help to provide a soothing effect.
Symptoms Of Atopic Dermatitis
- Extremely dry, scaly, and itchy skin
- The appearance of light and dark skin spots
- Rashes on scalps or cheeks
- The rashes increases of elbows and knees
- Rashes on neck, face, and around the eyes
- Liquid discharge from developed rashes
Actinic Keratosis is a chronic skin problem in which scaly spots develop on the skin. These spots are called sunspots or age spots and can be brown, tan, grey or maybe pink. Actinic Keratosis spots are visible on body parts that are in direct exposure to sunlight such as hands, arms, face, scalp, and neck. Individuals who are above 60 years of age are more likely to develop Actinic Keratosis. Light-complexioned and blue-eyed people are at a greater risk of developing skin spots. Furthermore, individuals who are exposed to the sun and get a sunburn to show the development of Actinic Keratosis spots on their bodies. Therefore, people need to apply sufficient SPF sunscreen to protect their skin from sunburn and diseases.
Symptoms Of Actinic Keratosis
- Thick, scaly, and colored skin patches/ spots
- Rapid enlargement of spots
- Redness and inflammation in affected areas
- Hardening of the skin lesions
Bacteria or fungus causes a painful skin infection that is Cellulitis. So mostly, the skin of the lower legs is affected by cellulitis. The condition results in redness, pain, and swollen skin with or without oozing. If the infection becomes chronic and severe, high fever, chills, and red streaking also appears.
Symptoms Of Cellulitis
- Pain, redness, and tenderness in the affected body parts
- Presence of abscess with pus
- Inflammation of the affected area
- The appearance of skin sore or rash
- Fever, fatigue, dizziness, lethargy, and light-headedness
- Muscular ache with warm skin
- Blisters and red streaks
Basal Cell Carcinoma
Basal cells line the epidermal layer of skin protecting the body from UV rays and harmful stresses. When there is an abnormal division and growth of basal cells, basal cell carcinoma develops. Therefore, basal cell carcinoma is the cancer of basal cells of the epidermis.
Symptoms Of Basal Cell Carcinoma
- The appearance of pigmented skin- brown, black, translucent, raised border cells
- The appearance of reddish patch on scaly and flat skin
- Presence of scar-like lesion
- Presence of skin bumps which are white or pink
- Inflammation of the affected area
To sum up, skin problems and disorders occur due to infections caused by bacteria or fungus, allergens, cancer, or other reasons. Skin is an extremely essential sense organ for protecting against harmful mechanical, physical, and thermal stressors. Therefore, inflammation of the affected area, presence of skin sore or rash, fever, fatigue, dizziness, lethargy, light-headedness, whiteheads, blackheads, and pimples are some of the commonly observed symptoms in skin disorders. However, other symptoms of skin problems include cracked skin, the presence of raised bumps, lesions, peeling skin, discolored skin patches, development of ulcers, loss of skin pigments, or excessive flushing. Hence, treatment in time can save a lot of pain and trauma.
The male reproductive system consists of the penis, testicle, scrotum, and other accessory organs that produce, maintain, and transport semen and sperms. Sperms are the male reproductive cells whereas semen is the protective fluid. Hence, the male reproductive system also produces and secretes male sex hormones responsible for sexual characteristics.
Cancer is a condition in which cells of an organ divide abnormally and uncontrollably and compete with normal cells for nutrition and growth. So, here is a list of types of genital cancers found in males.
So, the cancer of the penis is known as penile cancer caused by the growth of normal cells into cancerous cells leading to tumor formation. Men over 60 years of age, with excessive smoking habits, and poor personal hygiene are more likely to develop penile cancer. However, penile cancer can also be caused by sexually transmitted infections. Therefore, if penile cancer is severe, it may affect nearby areas such as the prostate gland, scrotum, and pubic bone.
Symptoms Of Penile Cancer
- Development of lump or ulcer on the penis
- Change in the color of the penis
- Thickening of penile skin
- Swelling of lymph nodes of the groin
- Itching, burning, and redness in the pelvic area
- Liquid discharge under the foreskin
- Appearance of rashes
A small gland located in the lower abdomen in males is known as the prostate gland which is regulated by the testosterone hormone. The prostate gland plays a major role in the production of seminal fluid. Cancer of the prostate gland occurs due to the malignant growth of cells forming a tumor in the prostate. Prostate cancer can be divided into two types- Aggressive and Non-aggressive based on its rapid growth. Therefore, the risk factors for developing Prostate cancer include old age, obesity, genetic changes, ethnicity, race, and family history of cancers.
Symptoms Of Prostate Cancer
- Urinary problems- frequent urges to urinate, slower stream while urinating, and blood discharge in urine
- Pain and numbness in pelvic area, chest, and neck
- Erectile dysfunction
- Swelling and puffiness in legs
- Change in bowel habits
- Abnormal weight loss with no apparent cause
Testes are the male reproductive organ located inside the scrotum responsible for the production of sperms and testosterone. Testicular cancer develops due to the formation of a tumor in either one or both testicles or testes. Seminomas and nonseminomas are the two types of germ cell tumors divided on the basis of how rapidly they grow and expand. Therefore, the risk factors of testicular cancer include undescended testicles, family history of cancer, and abnormal testicular development.
Symptoms Of Testicular Cancer
- Testicular swelling and redness
- Pain and discomfort in testicles
- Pain in abdomen, groin, scrotum, and back
- Changes in male breast tissues
- Growth of painless lump in the testicle
A hollow tube that serves as a common passage for urine and sperms in males is the urethra. Urological cancer of the urethra is rare and difficult to detect at an early stage. Generally, individuals suffering from chronic inflammation or infections are at a greater risk of developing urethral cancer. Males diagnosed with sexually transmitted infections (such as HPV) are more likely to develop urethral cancer. Hence, old people, people with bladder cancer, and urethral stricture often develop urethral cancer.
Symptoms Of Urethral Cancer
- The appearance of a lump on or near the urethra
- Reduced urinary flow or dribbling
- Bleeding and pain while urinating
- Urinary incontinence
- The appearance of enlarged lymph nodes in the groin
- Frequent urges to urinate
The urinary bladder holds urine produced in the body and guides the urge to remove it with the help of stretch receptors. Generally, males with exposure to chemicals and chronic bladder infections are more likely to develop bladder cancer.
It can be of the following types.
- Squamous cell carcinoma, occurs in the squamous cells of the urinary bladder. Hence, leading to irritation, redness, and pain.
- Transitional cells are modified cells of the urinary bladder that stretch and change shape to store and pass urine. Carcinoma occurs in the transitional cells of the urinary bladder.
- Adenocarcinoma occurs in the glandular cells of the bladder. Hence, it causes inflammation and irritation.
Symptoms Of Bladder Cancer
- Bleeding and pain while urinating
- Urinary incontinence
- Frequent urges to urinate
- Pain in abdomen and lower back
- Unexplained tiredness
- Weight loss with no apparent cause
- Bone tenderness
However, to summarize, cancer develops when cells of any organ divide abnormally and uncontrollably forming a tumor. Bladder cancer, penile cancer, urethral cancer, prostate cancer, and testicular cancer are some of the male-centric cancers. Furthermore, the treatment of cancer is majorly by the location of the tumor, size of the tumor, stage of cancer, and age of the patient. Therefore, general symptoms associated with cancer of any genital part include pain, redness, and discomfort in that area. Also, growth of lumps that may be painful or painless, urinary incontinence, and changes in the genital color or structure.
Simple clench and release exercises can help women to make the muscles of the pelvic region strong, flexible, and healthy. Another name for Kegel exercises is pelvic floor exercises.
A weak pelvic area can cause complications including bowel diseases, pelvic organ prolapses, or urine incontinence. Muscles that form a hammock in the pubic bone at the back are known as pelvic floor muscles. Therefore, kegel exercises are specially to support the bowels, bladder, and womb. These exercises help in the prevention of sagging of the bladder, uterus, and bowel into the vagina by maintaining the health, flexibility, and strength of pelvic muscles.
Benefits of Kegel exercises
Kegel exercises can be highly advantageous for individuals to improve their sexual health. These exercises help in opening the vagina by relaxing the genital muscles in females. Kegel exercises are an excellent way to improve blood circulation to the female genital organ and pelvic floor. Furthermore, these exercises make it easy for individuals to attain orgasm and amplifies the wetness of the vagina. Overall, kegel exercises are for increasing sexual arousal and improving sexual health.
To find the right pelvic muscles, females perform a simple activity. First, insert a finger into the vaginal opening. Try to squeeze or tighten the muscles similar to a situation wherein females are required to hold back urine. After tightening, individuals will feel the muscles of the pelvic floor moving up and down.
- Sit with your knees and feet apart. Women can also lie down with legs slightly apart.
- Squeeze/ compress the pelvic muscles around the anus and vagina. It will be similar to stopping the pelvic area from urinating or passing gas.
- Individuals will feel tightening of vaginal and anal muscles. Release the contraction after 5 to 10 seconds.
- All the other muscles such as the stomach, leg, and buttocks should remain relaxed.
- Continuous and regular breathing is essential throughout the exercise.
- You can repeat kegel exercises at least 10 times in the morning, afternoon, and night.
The above-mentioned procedure should be done within 10 seconds with repeated tightening, holding, and relaxing of pelvic muscles. Females can also perform quick contractions and relaxations for 2 to 5 seconds.
Precautions that need to be kept in mind
Females must ensure that muscles of the back, buttocks, abdomen, and legs remain relaxed while performing kegel exercises. There’s a high possibility of women performing the exercise incorrectly if they sense pain in the stomach or back. For preventing incontinence, always try to contract and relax pelvic muscles before jumping, lifting, or sneezing.
Kegel exercises are simple exercises to improve the strength and endurance of the pelvic girdle by contractions and relaxation. These exercises help in improving the sexual health and blood circulation of individuals. These exercises maintain the health, flexibility, and strength of pelvic muscles. Furthermore, these exercises prevent sagging of the bladder and uterus into the vagina. However, take good care while performing Kegel exercises as the incorrect method can lead to more harm than help.
Parkinson’s disease is a neurological disorder that is processed in nature. It occurs when nerve cells or neurons are unable to function properly.
What happens inside the body?
Dopamine is a chemical that produces in the substantia nigra part of the midbrain. Dopamine facilitates the movement of smooth muscles of the body and monitors reward-seeking behavior. Parkinson’s disease develops due to the death of cells of substantia nigra. As the cells of substantia nigra degenerate, the production of dopamine in the body is reduced. Symptoms that associate with Parkinson’s disease arise after the dropping of dopamine production to 60-80 percent. Furthermore, reduced production of neurotransmitters and norepinephrine are also associated with Parkinson’s disease due to neural damage.
Parkinson’s disease can cause difficulties in walking, balancing, and moving the body in a coordinated manner. It makes the person’s body stiff and shaky. It also causes various mental and behavioral problems.
Causes of Parkinson’s Diseases
Damage and death of nerve cells cause Parkinson’s disease. The coordinated movement of body muscles is impaired in this disorder due to the reduced production of dopamine. Here’s a list of various causes of Parkinson’s disease.
- Exposure to chemical toxins elevates the risk of developing Parkinson’s disease.
- Lewy bodies are the clumps that form due to certain substances in the brain cells. The presence of Lewy bodies is a potential cause of Parkinson’s disease.
- Various substances are found in Lewy bodies. But according to researchers, Alpha-synuclein is the main factor responsible for the development of this disease.
- Genetic mutations majorly influence this disease. In rare cases, gene mutations and variations are diagnosed in the person affected by Parkinson’s disease.
- Other potential causes of this disease include progressive brain conditions and cerebrovascular disease.
Risk factors that influence development of Parkinson’s Disease
- Men are at a greater risk of developing it during old age.
- Individuals above the age of 60 are more likely to develop the progressive neural disease than young adults.
- Individuals affected by head injuries are at a greater risk of developing the progressive neural disorder.
- Heredity majorly governs the development of Parkinson’s disease.
- A person exposed to toxins, herbicides, and pesticides is at a greater risk of developing Parkinson’s disease.
Symptoms of Parkinson’s Disease
Parkinson’s disease causes improper coordination of smooth muscles leading to imbalance, memory loss, depression, excessive fatigue, and sleep problems. Here’s a list of symptoms associated with it.
- Shaking or tremors of limbs, hands, and fingers. The tremors in neural disease occur suddenly even when the person is resting.
- Muscle stiffness is very common in people who have Parkinson’s disease making it difficult and painful for them to move.
- As the disease processes, individuals experience difficulties while speaking. The person may speak too quickly, too slowly, hesitate or slur while speaking.
- Bradykinesia is another symptom of Parkinson’s disease. As the disease processes, individuals are unable to carry out simple tasks. For instance, not being able to get up from a chair, and not being able to walk.
- Affected individuals gradually face problems with balancing their bodies and tend to fall while walking or moving.
As the disease is progressive, individuals show severe symptoms causing a deterioration in their mental health and behavioral health. Hallucinations, high-level anxiety, depression, sleep disorders, psychosis, and difficulty in memory and attention are some of the severe symptoms that relate to Parkinson’s disease. The affected individuals show blank facial expressions, low-volume speech, decreases swallowing, reduced blinking, and muffled behaviors.
Stages Of Parkinson’s Disease
In this stage, no apparent symptoms are visible. The disease is present in the mildest form. It does not cause any interference with the daily tasks of the individual.
It may take months or years for the disease to develop from stage 1 to stage 2. In Stage 2, moderate symptoms such as small tremors, little muscle stiffness, and trembling are visible in the person. However, changes in posture are visible during this stage.
In stage 3, the symptoms are present in the elevated form. The person may find it extremely difficult to balance the body movement. In this, individuals take more time than usual while carrying out day-to-day tasks.
Significant changes are visible during the transition of neural disease from stage 3 to stage 4. The affected person may experience greater difficulty while standing up without assisting devices. It is dangerous for people to live alone during stage 4.
The final stage of this disease is highly destructive. The person experiences hallucinations, high-level anxiety, depression, sleep disorders, psychosis, confusion, and delusions during this stage.
Parkinson’s disease is a neurological disorder that is processed in nature. It starts with the death of cells of substantia nigra leading to reduced production of dopamine. Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that controls coordinated body movement. Development of tremors, slow body movements, muscle stiffness, and balancing problems are visible in individuals suffering from Parkinson’s disease. Furthermore, the affected individuals show blank facial expressions, hallucinations, high-level anxiety, sleep disorders, psychosis, muffled behaviors, etc. Hence, genetic variations and environmental effects are the two major factors governing the development of Parkinson’s disease.